Types of diabetes
Type 1 diabetes was previously called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile-onset diabetes. Type 1 diabetes develops when the body's immune system destroys pancreatic beta cells, the only cells in the body that make the hormone insulin that regulates blood glucose. This form of diabetes usually strikes children and young adults, although disease onset can occur at any age. Type 1 diabetes may account for 5% to 10% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Risk factors for type 1 diabetes may include autoimmune, genetic, and environmental factors.
Type 2 diabetes was previously called non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes. Type 2 diabetes may account for about 90% to 95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. It usually begins as insulin resistance, a disorder in which the cells do not use insulin properly. As the need for insulin rises, the pancreas gradually loses its ability to produce insulin. Type 2 diabetes is associated with older age, obesity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, impaired glucose metabolism, physical inactivity, and race/ethnicity.
Gestational diabetes is a form of glucose intolerance that is diagnosed in some women during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes occurs more frequently among African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, and American Indians. It is also more common among obese women and women with a family history of diabetes. During pregnancy, gestational diabetes requires treatment to normalize maternal blood glucose levels to avoid complications in the infant. After pregnancy, 5% to 10% of women with gestational diabetes are found to have type 2 diabetes. Women who have had gestational diabetes have a 20% to 50% chance of developing diabetes in the next 5-10 years.
Newly diagnosed diabetics and their loved ones are encouraged to visit the following organizations to learn more about the disease. PNDRI also invites you to explore the breakthrough science being conducted at the Institute, and appreciates any support of its efforts to cure diabetes and its complications.
Resources for type 1 diabetes
- TEDDY (The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young)
- Newborn Diabetes Screening (DEW-IT)
- American Diabetes Association's type 1 diabetes page
- Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation
Resources for all forms of diabetes
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse
- National Diabetes Education Program
- National Agricultural Library
- Global Diabetes Alliance
- Indian Health Service
- Veterans Health Administration
- American Diabetes Association
- World Health Organization
- International Diabetes Federation